Dick Clark’s CANE Model for Improving Motivation

When motivation (a lack thereof) is an underlying problem that accounts for a lack of performance, we need a robust, research-backed way to answer this question:  

How do people decide to invest effort and then get (and stick) with the program?

Here’s an article that includes a helpful model that you can use to demystify and address motivation issues at work (and in your personal life, too):

Motivating Performance: Diagnosing and Solving Motivation Problems and Opportunities

Published as: Motivating Performance: Part 1 – Diagnosing and Solving Motivation Problems. Performance Improvement, 37(8), 39-46.

Clark’s article answers essential questions for those times when you suspect that a lack of motivation is a significant issue in a performance problem:

  • What if we underestimate the importance of motivation in performance? Sadly, this is easy to do.
  • What if we had a systematic approach to solving motivation problems? Do we need that? Yes! Plus, this article offers one.
    What are the factors that lead us to commit to a goal? There are three main factors; each one is explained, with examples.
    What should we do once we identify the factors that are out of whack? The article includes a worked example and the main solutions for each factor.

Working with motivation issues can be a challenge. Thankfully, they don’t have to remain mysterious, and there’s a process we can follow to make things better.


On The Shoulders of Giants

Who is the father of HPT

Every now and then I see Thomas Gilbert referenced as the “father of HPT.”  Not sure where that got started.  In 2007 Don Tosti and Roger Kaufman did a Commentary on “Who Is The ‘Real’ Farther of HPT?  I have attached the article here for your consideration and perhaps shed some light on the history of NSPI/ISPI.  Both Tosti and Kaufman attended the first NSPI conference and in their article with respect to Gilbert disagree with this idea.  Tosti and Kaufman “…identify a number of other contributors who were significant and even crucial to the early development and expansion of the technology.” Take a look at the article Real Father of HPT – Kaufman-Tosti and see others that contributed to the early development of HPT and PI.

What other names would you add to the list?



Blog: The 10,000 Hour Practice Myth



It has happened to most of us: We’ve fallen for a myth – something that may be partially accurate but, ultimately, faulty. In this blog, Chu discusses the 10,000-hour myth: To master a skill, we need 10,000 hours of practice. While practice can be vital for skill mastery, Chu chips away at the 10,000-hour rule.

Blog Link

The blog is entitled, The “10,000-Hour” Myth: Why Deliberate Practice Isn’t Enough to Succeed.

From the Blog

Chu references a research study of chess players and musicians and reports what they found:

When they analyzed the relationship between practice and skill level, they found large disparities in the amount of practice experts put in. In one case, one chess player took 26 years to reach the same level that another reached in only two years. By revisiting previous studies, they found that some people, no matter how much work they put in, couldn’t reach the same level that others did in a shorter period of time.

The same study also found that deliberate practice accounted for only one-third of the variance in chess and music levels. In other words, skill largely involves factors outside of practice.

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Videos of the HPT Treasures Blogger Team Members

Guy Wallace started these 2 video series – HPT Legacy and HPT Practitioner – back in 2008 to help share the diversity of HPT Practitioners and their Practices.

Here are 6 of the 69 videos in this collection:

Jeanne Farrington

From 2012.

Gary DePaul

From 2011.

Roger Addison

From 2008.

From 2009.

Guy W. Wallace

From 2008.

From 2009.

For More

See the full collection of HPT Legacy and HPT Practitioner videos – here.

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Make Your Own Audio Logo

As I was browsing through the resources on HPT Treasures, I saw a link to an Audio Logo Worksheet, and I thought, “What is an audio logo?”

As you might guess, if you don’t know already, it’s a short, unique sound that is associated with a brand. Metro Goldwyn Mayer has one of my favorites: the growl of a gorgeous lion. We all know that we’re about to see a movie when we see the logo and hear that sound.

How do we turn the complexity of what we do into a helpful audio logo?

So, imagine that you’ve met someone who hasn’t heard of performance consulting or instructional design, etc., and you want to say what you do.

This is not that easy to explain in ordinary language and just a few seconds.

If we could do this, we might think of our explanation as a spoken audio logo.

Want some help with that? Enter Lynn Kearny’s worksheet, which gives helpful advice and examples for creating your own audio logo. For a little more context, here’s a post I wrote a few years ago about the difficulty of meeting new people without having a succinct answer ready for the question, “What do you do?”


What Is Performance Architecture?

What is Performance Architecture?

Performance Architecture integrates the Worker, Work, Workplace and the World within a system framework

View of the organization as a dynamic system where every part affects each other part and aligned with all parts of the system to best achieve the desired results.

The focus on building sustained performance systems

Broadly defined, Performance Architecture it a diagnostic-prescription approach to analyze and design human performance systems. PA integrates performance improvement technologies and includes the worker, the work and the workplace

The word “architecture” often conveys a sense of structure, strength, experience-even beauty-but most of all a sense of creativity. When paired with “performance” the connotation is also one of a creative and a comprehensive approach to achieve results.

Building Architects take a broad view. They are not just concerned with the physical design of the structure but also with its heating, cooling, and other energy requirements. They consider the flow of people through the structure, the ease of maintenance, emergency access, wind deflection, and a whole range of other factors. They view the entire structure as a dynamic system that must be considered in terms of all its parts. Architecture goes far beyond what kind of windows we install.

Performance Architects also take a broad view, but of the organization. They are not just concerned with one aspect like the business processes, the strategy, the structure, the culture, the leadership, job performance, or the marketplace. Performance Architects view the organization as a dynamic system where every part is affected and in turn affects every other part. Most importantly, they work from the perspective that the best way to obtain the desired results requires that the whole system is aligned to produce those results.

Of course, both building and organizational systems need repair and both kinds of architects may provide repair solutions. But the main job of all kinds of architects is to create and design effective systems that provide a valued experience for their constituents. There are professions that focus on repair. Plumbers fix broken pipes and Six Sigma people fix “broken” processes. There are also disciplines that have deep expertise in particular pieces of the organizational system. There are strategy, marketing, financial, business process, leadership, measurement, and project management consultants. There are probably several hundred more specialists that could be identified. Just as in the building trade, where there are a host of “experts” in various aspects of construction that the Building Architect can draw on, so too, the Performance Architect can draw on a variety of supporting organizational experts.

Performance Architecture grew out of the field of Performance Improvement Technologies (PIT). A focus on creative designs and broad-based system analysis were inherent in the very first applications of HPT. But since practitioners were most often called into existing organizations that were having a problem, the field developed many applications that dealt with limited areas of “repair” focused on closing the “gap” between their existing and their potential performance. Today there are many “gap” specialists within the field of PIT. There are those that focus on developing job aids, doing process improvement, designing instruction in a variety of media, performance management, job analysis, and so on. Often such specialists either act as or provide support to Performance Architects.

Performance Architects are those that consider the full organization in all its aspects to design and align all the parts to best achieve the desired results.

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Article: Paul “Bear” Bryant, 323 Wins, and the Importance of Observation



In August of 1988, Training Magazine published Tom Gilbert’s article, “The Science of Winning.” Marilyn Gilbert gave permission to the ISPI Vancouver Chapter to republish this article.

The article illustrates the importance of observation with how Paul “Bear” Bryant of the University of Alabama built a legacy with six national championships and 323 wins.


HPT Treasures has a PDF of Tom and Marilyn Gilbert’s article, The Science of Winning: Wherein We Observe Paul “Bear” Bryant build A Winning Team – But Not the Way He Said He did.

Sample: Exemplary Performers vs. Top Performers

Early in the article, Gilbert and Gilbert explain why exemplary performer is preferred over top performer:

We have demonstrated that exemplary performers differ very little from average ones, but that the differences are enormously valuable. And at the risk of sounding pretentious, we say “exemplary” performs rather than “top” performers for a good reason: People may be “tops” because they cheat, work 80 hours a week, butter up the boss, or happen to be geniuses. They obviously are not good exemplars for the rest of us.

Observational-based Training

In the article, Gilbert and Gilbert explain that Bryant used observation-based training. Bryant relied heavily on using cameras to capture and distill player movement data. He used film for different purposes. One purpose was to show players what exemplary players who played the same position did.

Is this article important?

Whether you like Alabama football or not, this is a powerful article that gives readers insight into Gilbert and Gilbert’s thinking.

BTW, did you know that Gilbert discredited the Hawthorne Effect? Read the article to learn more!

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