PDF: First Principles of Instruction – M David Merrill
Educational Technology, Research and Development; 2002; 50, 3; ProQuest Education Journals pg. 43.
M. David Merrill (2002) identified five Instructional Design principles that promote learning when creating learning/training environments, processes, and products. He noted that the most effective learning processes or environments are problem-centered and involve the learner in the five distinct phases of:
- Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems — start with simple problems and work through a progression of increasingly complex problems.
- Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge — prior experience from relevant past experience is used as a foundation for the new skills and knowledge (also know as scaffolding).
- Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner — they are shown, rather than just being told.
- Learning is promoted when new knowledge is applied by the learner — they are required to use their new knowledge or skill to solve problems.
- Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world — they are able to demonstrate improvement in their newly acquired skills and to modify it for use in their daily work.
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