By Richard E. Clark, David F. Feldon, and Soojeong Jeong
The chapter begins with a quick summary and research update on earlier lists of ten
questionable multimedia principles (Clark & Feldon, 2005, 2014). We then add five
additional principles that have gained traction in recent years.
The updated 10 former questionable beliefs include the unfulfilled expectations that multimedia instruction: (1) yields more learning than live instruction or older media, (2) is more motivating than
other instructional media, (3) provides animated pedagogical agents that aid learning, (4)
accommodates different learning styles and so maximizes learning for more students; and
also benefits learning by allowing and encouraging (5) student managed constructivist
and discovery approaches, (6) autonomy and control over the sequencing of instruction;
(7) higher order thinking skills (8) incidental learning of enriching information (9)
interactivity, and (10) authentic learning environments and activities.
The more recent additions and the focus of this discussion are false expectations that multimedia
instruction benefits learning by providing: (11) presence from virtual reality sessions,
(12) virtual and remote laboratories, (13) gamification, (14) recorded lectures, and (15)
We end the chapter with a suggestion for using big data and aptitude treatment interaction research to avoid or resolve many past and future mistaken principles.
Free 30 page PDF here: Clark Feldon Jeong 15 Mistaken Principles Mayer 3rd ed 2020 final
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