Optimizing the Efficacy of Learning Objectives through Pretests

Thanks to Paul Kirschner for posting this on Twitter!

Very interesting study comparing learning objectives, their placement (before & interpolated), and pretest questions (MC & short answer) on learning. Study 3 is very interesting as providing feedback on pretest questions led to poorer learning.


Learning objectives (LOs) are statements that typically precede a study session and describe the knowledge students should obtain by the end of the session. Despite their widespread use, limited research has investigated the effect of LOs on learning. In three laboratory experiments, we examined the extent to which LOs improve retention of information.

For more – see it here:



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